3rd edition

Candide has been delighting readers since 1759 with its satiric wit, provocations, and warnings. The novella has never been out of print and has been translated into every conceivable language. The text of this Norton Critical Edition remains that of Robert M. Adams’s superlative translation, accompanied by explanatory annotations. The Norton Critical Edition also includes:

  • A full introduction by Nicholas Cronk.
  • Six background studies of Enlightenment ideas and themes (by Richard Holmes, Adam Gopnik, W. H. Barber, Dennis Fletcher, Haydn Mason, and Nicholas Cronk), five of these new to the Third Edition.
  • Seven critical essays—five of them new to this edition—representing a wide range of approaches to Candide. Contributors include J. G. Weightman, Robin Howells, James J. Lynch, Philip Stewart, Erich Auerbach, and Jean Starobinski.
  • A revised and expanded Selected Bibliography.


Publisher: W.W. Norton